sábado, 27 de março de 2010

writing reviews on one annotated bibliography and one learning object published by colleagues

Processos Pedagógicos em Elearning
Unit 1: Act 3 - Review of AB & LO

Review of a Learnig Object
Maria João has a "prezi" on the theory of cooperative freedom, its presentation is clear and concise.
It was with Maria João that I discovered the existence of the "prezi" and has to realize that this is a new way to communicate. One advantage of this tool is the ability to re-use and sharing this eLearning material, which makes it a true LO.
My "issuu" although it can be shared and absorbed and then reused in various learning environments cannot be reissued :( so I will make available the slides on this blog that prompted it.

Review of a Annotated Bibliography
Ana Marmeleira presents a variety of annotated bibliography that goes from the Professor Morten Paulsen articles, passes through a blog which I intend to read all the post and ends in an article in Portuguese which I also recommend the reading.

1. The Hexagon Of Cooperative Freedom: A Distance Education Theory Attuned to Computer Conferencing (professor Morten Flate Paulsen)
Any bibliography about cooperative freedom has to include the article writen by its author, professor Morten Paulsen. students...

2. An interview with professor Morten Paulsen (Michael F. Shaughnessy Senior Columnist EducationNews.org)
This is an excellent reading for all of those who want to understand what cooperative learning is because it’s an interview with professor Morten Paulsen...

3. Collaborative versus cooperative learning: a comparison of the two concepts which will help us understand the underlying nature of interactive learning (Ted Panitz)
This is an important article to establish the difference between two concepts that are frequently confused: collaborative and cooperative learning...

4. The search for learning community in learner paced distance education: Or, 'Having your cake and eating it, too!'
(Terry Anderson, David Annand and Norine Wark)
This report examines the challenges and opportunities for peer communication, support, and cooperation in online courses without losing the learner paced characteristics...
5. Having your Cake and eating it Too – Part Two (Terry Anderson)
Based on the Theory of Cooperative Freedom, this blog article continues the bibliography mentioned above...

6. Supporting Peer Help and Collaboration in Distributed Workplace Environments (J. Greer, G. McCalla, J. Collins, V. Kumar, P. Meagher, J. Vassileva)
I consider this article a very interesting reading because it isn’t a theoretical document. It presents a practical application of the cooperative learning...

7. Relatório do Estado da Arte: Qualidade do E-Learning para PMEs Europeias: Uma Análise de Experiências de E-Learning em Pequenas e Médias Empresas (Edited by CECOA – Centro de Formação Profissional para o Comércio e Afins)
Like the previous bibliography reference, this document is a practical example of the use of elearning. The "Report on the State of the Art: Quality e-Learning for European SMEs - An Analysis of Experiences in E-learning in Small and Medium Business"... 
More reviews that involves possible judgement of the works made and that I consider as private matter will be send, in Portuguese language, to the colleagues by private email. 

sábado, 20 de março de 2010

Can we identifying the difference of the work made by a cooperative and by a collaborative way?

Processos Pedagógicos em Elearning
Unit 1: Act 2 - Learning Object

The aim of my LO is to raise several hypotheses and contribute to the discussion about if whether or not possible to identifying the difference of the work made by a cooperative and by a collaborative way.

I tried to include in my LO the words exchanged with colleagues in this Universidade Aberta private moodle forum.

This was the first time I used the Issuu. To build this LO, I used PowerPoint, toonlet, Photoshop then I export to Acrobat  where I cut and numbered the pages, then I sent to Issuu.

tip: click in the middle for fullscreen

(be sure to see the illustrated bibliography without which the LO is incomplete)

Licença Creative Commons This blog entry and this LO are licensed under a Creative Commons License

domingo, 14 de março de 2010

Cooperative freedom / Annotated Bibliography

Unit 1: Activity 1 : Cooperative freedom


(This image is a wordle of text below)


Annotated Bibliography

All the papers I read in this short time, about Cooperative Freedom are pointing to Morten Paulsen articles.

Paulsen, M.F. 2003. Online Education and Learning Management Systems Global E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective , 39 – 50. Nki Forlaget. Norway.

The chapter describes the Theory of Cooperative Freedom . This theory suggests that, "distance students need cooperation as well as individual freedom. It professes that students should have high level of freedom to chose rather than be restrain by a rigid distance education program".
Paulsen identifies and describes three approaches to learning: Individual learning , Collaborative Learning and Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Freedom is a mix balance from group cooperation and individual autonomy and "can be achieved if we can balance time, space, pace, medium, access, and content". 

Paulsen concludes that "Future adult students will seek individual flexibility and freedom. At the same time, many need or prefer group collaboration and social unity. These aims are difficult to combine, but online education, when integrated with other media, can be the means of joining individual freedom and collective unity into truly flexible, cooperative distance education programs". 

Anderson , T. 2008. The Theory and Practice of Online Learning - 2nd ed., 221 – 241. AU Press, Athabasca University.

The chapter describes, defines and discusses the Educational Social Software (ESS). Mentions the Social Presence and refers the Social Challenges in Distance Online Education. 

Terry Anderson suggests a seventh dimension for the Paulsen hexagonal model, he says that to have total freedom, models of distance education should take into account the "freedom of relationship, where learners are allowed to engage in the type of learning relationship with other learners that best fits their individual social needs and capacities." 

For Anderson, the "ESS tool development and application is in its very early stages", so he remains convinced that a ESS killer app can make "significant improvements (both in cost- and learning-effectiveness) to our current practice and theory of distance education".

Workshop: Cooperative and Collaborative Learning A set of internet pages. 14 March 2010, 19:35 

The page has four tabs: Explanation; Demonstration; Exploration; Implementation. In this page the author try to answer several questions about Cooperative and Collaborative learning. It seems a good idea for teachers to see a real work model. It's not a elearning model but try to answer this questions: 

  • What are cooperative and collaborative learning?
  • How do cooperative and collaborative learning differ from the traditional approach?
  • How have cooperative and collaborative learning developed since they became popular?
  • What are the benefits of cooperative and collaborative learning?
  • What are some critical perspectives?
  • How can I use cooperative and collaborative learning in conjunction with other educational techniques?
  • What do cooperative lesson plans look like?
  • How do I get started using cooperative and collaborative groups?
  • What are the most effective small groups I can use for different learning objectives?
  • What are some challenges I might face?
  • How do I assess students' progress?
  • How can small-group projects involve parents and the community?
  • How can technology be used with cooperative and collaborative learning?

To learn more about cooperative  and collaborative learning I recommend to read:

Ted Panitz (1996) A Definition of Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning from the site Deliberations (*) Accessed the 30 June 2010.

In this article we can read that the author have "been searching for many years for the Holy Grail of interactive learning, a distinction between collaborative and cooperative learning definitions".  

This article point to Spencer Kagan in an article in Educational Leadership (Dec/Jan 1989/1990)  and to John Myers (Cooperative Learning vol 11 #4 July 1991) and to Rocky Rockwood (National Teaching and Learning Forum vol 4 #6, 1995 part 1). 

Panitz conclues "It is clear to me that in undertaking the exercize of defining differences between the two ideas we run the risk of polarizing the educational community into a we versus them mentality. There are so many benefits which acrue from both ideas that it would be a shame to lose any advantage gained from the student-student-teacher interactions created by both methods. We must be careful to avoid a one-size-fits-all mentality when it comes to education paradigms".
As a final thought, "I think it behooves teachers to educate themselves about the myriad of techniques and philosophies which create interactive environments where students take more responsibility for their own learning and that of their peers. Then it will become possible to pick and chose those methods which best fit a particular educational goal or community of learners".

(*) Deliberations is an international website on issues of learning and teaching for the higher education community, is based in the Centre for Academic Professional Development (CAPD) at London Metropolitan University and is currently funded and fully supported by the university. The editor is Anne Morris, Senior Lecturer in Educational Development at London Metropolitan University.


The need for improvement has always been a constant of the human condition, not always the changes are well accepted, they need to be proved. Edgar Morin said that the man to evolve killed the monkey. We wait for a "Social software’s killer ap". Is also from suggestions and sharing that theories can evolve. Perhaps we needed a seventh freedom, such as Terry Anderson suggested. It seems that elearning starts to kill the traditional learning, like Video killed the radio star, and such said Camões “Mudam-se os tempos, mudam-se as vontades" as time change the wills changes. New doubts appear, for ex: difference between collaborative learning and cooperative learning. New theories rise like the Cooperative Freedom. The whole world is made up of change , always taking on new qualities.  

Illustrated Annotated Bibliography

W hen I was looking for information on Cooperative Learning, I found this concept in conjunction with Collaborative Learning. I wondered how many authors describe these two concepts. 

So I start looking for documentation on this subjects, and the more clearly and
succinctly approach that I found in this shorter time, is a "toonlet" from the Professor Paulsen related to Theory of Cooperative Freedom These concepts are also explained by Paulsen on this paper http://www.seminar.net/index.php/volume-4-issue-2-2008-previousissuesmeny-124/100-cooperative-online education and on this book Online Education and Learning Management SystemsGlobal E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective

The texts that follow and the designs were cut from the documents mentioned above. 


Paulsen identifies three approaches to learning: 



Individual learning 
Individual learning provides superior individual flexibility, but very limited affinity to a learning community. It has a strong position in online education delivered by institutions with a tradition in distance education. 

Collaborative Learning 

Collaborative learning requires participation in a learning community, but limits individual flexibility. One may say that collaborative learning requires that students sink or swim together. Collaborative learning is common in online education offered by traditional face-to-face institutions. 

Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning focuses on opportunities to encourage both individual flexibility and affinity to a learning community. Cooperative learning seeks to foster some benefits from individual freedom and other benefits from cooperation in online learning communities. It thrives in virtual learning environments that emphasize individual freedom within online learning communities. 

Another illustration

Paulsen start develop the Theory of Cooperative Freedom in 1992. This theory suggests that, distance students need cooperation as well as individual freedom. It professes that students should have high level of freedom to chose rather than be restrain by a rigid distance education program.

One of the students of last year, the colleague Pedro Teixeira, as created a video that summarizes the Theory of Cooperative Freedom


A Video from Professor Morten Flate Paulsen.

Cooperative Freedom is a mix balance from group cooperation and individual autonomy and can be achieved if we can balance time, space, pace, medium, access, and content. The hexagon of cooperative freedom.


Morten Paulsen concludes that Future adult students will seek individual flexibility and freedom. At the same time, many need or prefer group collaboration and social unity. These aims are difficult to combine, but online education, when integrated with other media, can be the means of joining individual freedom and collective unity into truly flexible, cooperative distance education programs

To learn more about Cooperative Learning and how if differs from Collaborative Learning  I recommend this two videos by Larry G. Richards Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia:

PPEL work

Dear reader you can find the drafts of my work in the discipline of PPEL in this page
All the weeks, at least by the end of Sunday, I will be updated the PPEL page.

(review 27 March 2010)
Hello again
Maria João, created a wiki where are links to the works made by the PPEL Students Group.

quarta-feira, 10 de março de 2010

Barreira Linguística / Language Barrier

Caros leitores, quero pedir a vossa compreensão. 
Estive a visualizar o vídeo: Richard Baraniuk on open-source learning em que o entrevistado me alerta para o facto de estar a utilizar uma língua pouco falada no mundo e por isso pertencer a um grupo a que ele chama de  grupo da "Barreira de Excluídos", por não ser capaz  de compartilhar o meu conhecimento com o mundo
Tenho alertado os meus alunos para a necessidade de aprenderem Inglês, por ser a língua universal. O mesmo se aplica a mim. De facto sou apenas um autodidacta em Inglês.

Tenho a sorte de conseguir compreender o Inglês escrito e falado com relativa facilidade, contudo as minhas capacidades de expressão escrita em  Inglês são diminutas. 

Vou ter de escrever neste blog alguns post em Inglês.

Tenho uma disciplina de Processos Pedagógicos em Elearning  em que tenho de comunicar em Inglês. O  meu blog vai passar a ter alguns textos escritos numa linguagem que será apenas um pouco melhor que o Inglês dos tradutores automáticos. 

As minhas desculpas.

Já defini como objectivo que assim que terminar este curso de mestrado vou aprender Inglês. Continuarei a aprender até ser capaz de escrever tão mal o Inglês como escrevo mal o português. 

Até breve.

Imagem obtida do vídeo assinalado 

Dear readers, I ask for your understanding.

I've been viewing a video:Richard Baraniuk on open-source learning in which the interviewee points out the fact that I am using  a language other than one of the world's major language: the English. For him, I below to a "group off people below the barrier Shut-outs, because they're really shut out of the process of being able to share their knowledge with the world."

I often warn my pupils to the need of learning English because it is the universal language. The same applies to me. In fact I'm just a self-taught in English.

I am fortunate to be able to understand, more or less, spoken and written English, but my English writing skills are poor. 

I say that I can not be part of the Global Cooperative Online Education if I can´t communicate in English, so I need to write some blog post in English.

I have this subject Processos Pedagógicos em Elarning (eLearning Pedagogical Processes ) where I have to communicate in English, my blog is going to have some text written in a language that will be only slightly better than the English made with online translators.

My apology.

I've already set this goal as soon as I finish this master's course I will learn English, and I still continue to learn until i'm able to write English so badly as I write Portuguese.

See you soon

sábado, 6 de março de 2010

Reflexão após os primeiros 5 dias de curso.

(Estou a frequentar um curso de Mestrado em Pedagogia do ELearning na Universidade Aberta. Depois de um módulo inicial de ambientação estou finalmente a trabalhar. Nesta semana, por sábia decisão da coordenação do curso, só tivemos duas Unidades Curriculares, para a semana teremos as 4UC do primeiro semestre.)
Nesta primeira semana senti algumas dificuldades em coordenar o meu trabalho, andei preocupado em ler os vários textos e comecei a ficar com medo das semanas com 4UC.
Ainda estou a criar anti-corpos deste meu quase pânico e de uma constipação que me acompanhou precisamente desde segunda feira.

Decidido a não perder tempo, recorri a algumas horas de silêncio nocturno para ler os textos e reflectir sobre como avançar. Foi nessa altura que compreendi que precisava imprimir a maioria dos documentos, reparei que ao folhear o texto impresso consigo criar consciência do volume de informação a digerir, o que não acontece quando leio o documento com recurso a meios digitais. Agora que já imprimi os textos principais e os rascunhos das minhas respostas, sinto-me mais seguro nas minhas capacidades de gerir o tempo.

( Esta decisão de imprimir os textos vem contrariar a minha tendência em acabar com tudo o que é papel...     pois...    não se pode ser fundamentalista... )

A ansiedade que fui criando pelo início do curso e a vontade de superar as tarefas logo nos primeiros dias, também não ajudou. A ideia que tenho neste momento é que não devo correr muito para não me cansar. Preciso estar atento para não ficar para trás e conseguir passar as etapas na hora prevista, mas este curso parece ser uma maratona e não uma prova de velocidade.

Tenho ainda que trabalhar bem este fim de semana.

Vou ficar atento ao meu desempenho na próxima semana para (me) estudar melhor.

segunda-feira, 1 de março de 2010

Os blogues são como os tremoços

Comecei a adicionar ligações para Blogs dos colegas do MPEL03 e de repente já tinha umas dezenas de blogues ligados. Os blogues e os post são como os tremoços, depois de um...

o meu CARPE DIEM  My Space Mestrado No man is an Island Helena Prieto's Blog aprendizagens L E T R A G O R D A Teresa na Univ   Maria @ UAb THERA'S BLOG Blog da Telma Eu na Universidade Aberta Jgnrocaz's Blog a-mestrar  Educação a Distância / e-Learning Rui-MPEL   E_Construção FHM's blogue E-Maria João Potencial EAD Re-Formar Rumo ao Futuro eEducandu elearning hoje Beyond eLearning Percurso de Estudos em E-Learning E-Learning Isabel Manteigas Diário dElearning Juliana Antunes - Estudante on-line marinampel04 MPELejadores Mestrado em Pedagogia do e-learning Reflections on Teaching and Learning with MUVEs Mestrado em Pedagogia do e-Learning 04 - JCP Pedagogia do Elearning UA Pedagogia ELearning Blog Miguel de Lima - MPEL HD elearning MÃOS NAS TECLAS... Espaço E-learning laurizanascimento Mpel4 Blog de Rui Amaral Elearning-mm PedagogiaElearning-AM Sandra mpel04 Pedagogia do E-learning kalikimpel04´blog albertocardosompel04