sábado, 10 de abril de 2010

Online Teaching Techniques / Annotated Bibliography

Unit 2: Activity 1

(This image is a wordle of text below)

Online Teaching Techniques / Annotated Bibliography
[1] If we consider that to better understand the techniques of online education is necessary to know what is behind the distance learning then we can read this book:

image The Theory and Pratice of Online Learning, Terry Anderson  and others, second edition, May 2008, Athabasca University Press

It presents, in an easily readable form, the theory, administration, tools, and methods of designing and delivering learning online (Raj Dhanarajan, President Commonwealth of Learning, in http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/index.html)

Starting with a comprehensive summary of relevant educational theory, the book revisits, in a lively way, the great dichotomies that have marked the history of open and distance learning. How should we balance the social and individual aspects of study? What is the right mixture between independent and interactive learning? Should courses be paced for cohorts of students, or unpaced for the benefit of individuals? Succeeding chapters give helpful and well-informed guidance on vital aspects of online learning practice, such as copyright, multimedia editing, supporting asynchronous discussion, library support, and quality assurance. The concept of the value chain is used to set online learning in the context of today competitive educational marketplace in order to help institutional leaders decide where their own advantage might lie. (Sir John Daniel, Assistant Director-General for Education, UNESCO in http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/index.html)

The Online Learning Series is a collection of works by practitioners and scholars actively working in the field of distance education.

The authors of this text have shared their expertise to distance education practice to help to make choices regarding the pedagogical, economic, systemic, and political characteristics of the distance education systems within which they participate.

The authors suggest how to combine different theories to develop effective online materials.

The book is organized according to a perspective of a producer of distance learning: Part 1 provides a foundation to educational theory for online learning, to prepare the ground for discussing the different components of the online learning value chain in Parts 2-4. Part 2 deals with inbound logistics, Part 3 with production and with aspects of outbound logistics, and Part 4 with delivery, marketing, and service to learners. The following figure illustrates the organization of this volume.


In chapter 2, Anderson write about "Toward a Theory of Online Learning"
I'm a visual learning so I have to mention the quality of schemes of this chapter, for example:

in this image: a model of online learning showing types of interaction.

In chapter 11, Anderson write about  "Teaching in an Online Learning Context"
This chapter focuses on the role of the teacher or tutor in an online learning context. It uses a model that views the creation of an effective online educational community as involving three critical components: cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence.

in this image: the community of inquiry.

Relative to teaching presence the author identifies three roles that a teacher performs in the process of creating an effective teaching presence.
  1. Design and organization of the learning experience
  2. Encourage discourse between and among students, between the teacher and the student, and between individual students and groups of students.
  3. Direct instruction.

    [2] Several articles of this book appeared in the research I did for Online Teaching Techniques
    Image Paulsen, M.F. 2003. Online Education and Learning Management Systems Global E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective , 58 - 84/131. Nki Forlaget. Norway.

    In this chapter the author deals with online teaching methods, techniques, and devices. Paulsen presents four online teaching methods and several teaching techniques and devices.

    We can find this in practice in other institutions such as in Overview of Online Teaching Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communications, Queen's University

    Teaching Methods

    Teaching Techiques

    Teaching Devices

    One-online Techniques



    Information Retrieval Systems

    One-to-one Techniques



    E-mail Systems

    One-to-many Techniques



    Bulletin Board Systems

    Many-to-many Techniques


    Computer Conferencing Systems

    Every day there are new web 2.0 tools (see for example in this blog Learning Tools ) that will lead to new teaching techniques, but this scheme will continue to serve as a baseline.

    I chose again these tow books above for my annotated bibliography, because I think they are references in this area

    [3] The Online Education Resources section from ION represent a selected list of resources dealing with various aspects of online education and the online environment in general.


    Online Education Overview
    (Online Learning Overview, Libraries Online, Successful Programs, Glossary, Tips,...)
    Assessment / Evaluation Topics
    (Evaluation of Online Course/Programs/ Resources; Student Assessment...)
    Instructional Design
    (Models, Theories, Hybrid Courses , Course Objectives, Effective Strategies...)
    Pedagogy and Learning
    (Facilitation, Guest Lectures, Learning, Successful Instructor/Student, ...)
    (Encouraging, Synergy, Tools,...)
    Online Education Information
    (Forums, Journals,...)
    Software and Technology
    (Principles, Tutorials, Multimedia; Where to Go,...)
    Web Design
    (Accessibility, Usability, HTML, Styles, Programming,...)
    Intellectual Property
    (Copyright, Fair Use, Employee Agreements, TEACH Act... [mostly outside links used in our Copyright Course])

    We can find several pages about teaching and learning in elearning.

    In the page Instructional Strategies for Online Courses we can read "Because learners have different learning styles or a combination of styles, online educators should design activities that address their modes of learning in order to provide significant experiences for each class participant". We read about ten instructional strategies which have been effectively used in the traditional classroom and can likewise be used in the online learning environment:

    Learning Contracts Small Group Work
    Discussion Project
    Lecture Collaborative Learning
    Self-Directed Learning Case Study
    Mentorship Forum

    In the page Learning Styles and the Online Environment we can read "Everyone has their own "style" for collecting and organizing information into useful knowledge, and the online environment can be particularly well suited to some learning styles and personality needs". We read about students have different channels of perception (seeing, hearing, touching/moving) and we can read about four kind of learning styles

    Learning Style Preference for information acquisition
    Visual/Verbal Prefers to read information
    Visual/Nonverbal Uses graphics or diagrams to represent information
    Auditory/Verbal Prefers to listen to information
    Tactile/Kinesthetic Prefers physical hands-on experiences

    We must visit this page Instructional Strategies and Pedagogy for reading about:
    • Getting the information to the students
    • Being a successful instructor
    • Instructional Strategies / Pedagogy
    • Learning strategies in the Online Environment

    [4] Talking about new techniques of teaching with web 2.0, I advise the reader to view this site

    image Teachers TV is a website and free-to-air television channel, which provides video and support materials for those who work in education in the UK, including teachers, school leaders, governors, teacher trainers, student teachers and support staff.
    Its aims include raising educational standards, saving the workforce time, and boosting professional development. It also provides classroom resources and all content is available to watch or download for free. Further professional and practical help is on hand from its active online community, and the website has more than 350,000 registered users. The service was launched on the 8th February 2005, and is managed by Education Digital Management Ltd, and funded by the Department for Children, Schools and Families (this text came from Wikipedia, click to red more)

    [5] And to see where walk one of the largest providers of proprietary software for construct Learning Objects see http://www.adobe.com/products/elearningsuite/workflowvideos do not forget to open the tabs Rapid Authoring and Traditional Authoring.

    Later I will add new entries in this space. However you can find more Annotated Bibliography on the blog of my classmates, see links to the left or on the page http://ppel4.pbworks.com (ask for unit2 AB)


    The Online Teaching Techniques are influenced by the administrative politics from the emitting entity (suppliers), and from the receiving entities (client). There are  companies who are intransigent with the models and formation techniques that they want for its employees.  And It is logical that the emitting entities need to look for the production costs to maximize its profits.
    Online Teaching Techniques is also influenced by the technological evolution. Learning Objects and Teaching Devices that are considered good some years ago can now seen as obsolete.
    Any  good Online Teaching Technique always need to be related with the learning style that the pupils/students prefers.
    Learners have different learning styles or combination of styles, online educators should design activities that address to their modes of learning in to order to provide significant experiences will be each class participant.
    If it will be possible to identify previously the class learning style, it will be possible to the teacher to choose the best technique. Otherwise the teacher will have to diversify strategies to meet diverse styles of learning.

    If you are a student then you must have Online Dreams with the best from Elearning...

    Online Dreams

    related [www.studymentor.com]
    Online Dreams

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